Bagan (or Pagan) is an ancient city that was the capital of the first Burmese empire. It is a fairy-tale land drowning in ancient crumbling temples mostly from the 11 to 13 centuries A.D., golden pagodas, and dirt paths winding around the scrub-like greenery. It is located in the dry central plains of the country, on the eastern bank of the Irrawaddy River. There are more than 2,000 pagodas and temples to be found, most of which were built by the ancient kings and leaders of Burma.
Pagan’s importance lies in its heritage rather than its present. It was first built probably in AD 849 and. from the 11th century to the end of the 13th. was the capital of a region roughly the size of modern Myanmar. In 1287 it was overrun by the Mongols during their wide-ranging conquests. and it never recovered its position. though a little desultory building continued on Buddhist shrines.
Among these pagodas. there are four most famous pagodas which has the special features as follows:
Dhu = Dhammayan (The thickest)
Nyan = Thabinnyu (The Omniscient)
Anu = Ananda (The most sculptural)
Thakho = Shwezigon (The most powerful)
The old pagan was a walled city. The western flank on the Ayeyarwaddy rests. It was the center of a network of highways through which its rules could command a large region of fertile plains and could dominate other important Myanmar dynastic cities, Like Pegu. From the port of Thiripyissaya. Down in the river, Important foreign trade conducted with India, Ceylon, And other parts of Southeast Asia. The walls of the old town. Within of which is a substantial area of the modern city. Probably originally, it contained only real, aristocratic, religious, And administrative building. It is believed that the population lived in households very similar to those occupied by the current residents of lightweight construction.
Between 500 and 950 people in the Burman ethnic group was infiltrated from the north in a region infiltrated by other peoples; These people had already converted to the religion of India. Above all Buddhism Mahayana in Bihar and Bengal. Under King Anawrahta (ruled 1044-1077). The burmanes ethnic finally conquered the other peoples of the region. Including a city called Monday. These were formerly dominant in the south. They transported the mon royal family and scientists and craftsmen to Pagan. Become the capital and the center of an official. Fundamentalist Hinayana Buddhism (Theravada) adopted by Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Around 1056 this initiated the period of heathen size. At first held by artistic traditions of Mo. The great number of monasteries and built and maintained for the next 200 years pilgrimage church was possible, both by the great wealth of the royal treasure and the great number of slaves. Learned and unskilled. Whose working life was dedicated to the support of individual organs. The city became one of the most important centers of Buddhist learning.